Who's Who In Science And Engineering (Who's Who In Science
Authorship disagreements can be mitigated with careful discussions, explicit lab guidelines and a good understanding of authorship practices in one's field. There is no perfect approach, but deciding on who gets an authorship credit, and how they are ranked, is a crucial part of doing science responsibly.
Who's Who in Science and Engineering (Who's Who in Science
In the biological sciences, by contrast, the author list is often strictly ranked. The top spot is at the end of the list, where the principal investigator gets credit for running the lab. The student or postdoc who actually did the work goes first. As for the authors in the middle, it is hard to tell whether they participated a lot or a little, says Biagioli.
Gerald Schatten, a stem-cell researcher at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, learned that lesson when he lent his good name to a high-profile but eventually discredited stem-cell paper by Woo Suk Hwang, then at Seoul National University. Schatten was investigated by his university, which cleared him of misconduct, but chastised him for 'research misbehaviour' because he failed to check the quality of the science3.
Additionally, UNESCO's Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems programme (LINKS) promotes local and indigenous knowledge and its inclusion in global climate science and policy processes, and its World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) produces policy-relevant, timely and reliable information in various fields of water resources developments and management.
Shamila Nair-Bedouelle holds a PhD in Life Sciences from the University of Capetown in South Africa. She pursued her research career at the Institut Pasteur in Paris from January 1992 onwards then within the pharmaceutical industry at the MIT University Park in Boston, USA, from January 1994 until January 1996, when she integrated the French National Institue for Medical Research (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, INSERM). She has published in numerous scientific journals and is the co-inventor of several patents.Dr Nair-Bedouelle has pursued her research interests in parallel to her career at the United Nations. She has been Director of Research at the University of Paris V in France since 2000 and was nominated First Class Director of Research at INSERM in 2017. She also has a strong interest in managing science programmes. From 2002 to 2007, she was seconded from INSERM to the European Commission to serve as scientific officer and deputy scientific coordinator of scientific programmes.
NSF invests in researchers as they probe the unknown and seek to understand nature's great mysteries. These investments support basic research across all fields of fundamental science and engineering, except the medical sciences, as well as use-inspired research with the potential to create products and solutions that improve people's lives.
As described in our strategic plan, NSF is tasked with keeping the U.S. at the leading edge of discovery in science and engineering, to the benefit of all, without barriers to participation.
NSF works closely with the research community to shape our numerous funding opportunities. Scientists, engineers and educators can join the agency as temporary program directors; these "rotators" make recommendations about which proposals to fund and influence new directions in the fields of science, engineering and education. We also support workshops and other events that help identify potentially transformative areas of inquiry for future funding.
Philippa is a physicist by background with a PhD in atmospheric physics. She began her career as an editor on the science journal, Nature and first joined the Civil Service in the former Office of Science and Technology. While in Government, she held a variety of policy and corporate roles and acted as Principal Private Secretary to three Secretaries of State.
AAAS VISION STATEMENT: A boldly inclusive, mobilized, and global scientific community that ignites, enables, and celebrates scientific excellence and science-informed decisions and actions.
The world's largest multidisciplinary scientific society and a leading publisher of cutting-edge research through its Science family of journals, AAAS has individual members in more than 91 countries around the globe. Membership is open to anyone who shares our goals and belief that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics can help solve many of the challenges the world faces today. You can lend your support to our efforts on behalf of scientists, engineers, educators, and students everywhere by becoming a member. Together we can make a difference: Join Us.
The formation of AAAS in 1848 marked the emergence of a national scientific community in the United States. While science was part of the American scene from the nation's early days, its practitioners remained few in number and scattered geographically and among disciplines. AAAS was the first permanent organization formed to promote the development of science and engineering at the national level and to represent the interests of all its disciplines.
Participants in AAAS meetings, held in cities across the country, represented a who's who of science. The meetings were covered widely by newspapers, which sometimes reprinted their proceedings verbatim.
The life of AAAS has been interwoven with the growth of American science. In celebration of its sesquicentennial in 1998, AAAS created an exhibit of artifacts, providing a glimpse at some of the people and events that have left an impression upon the association's history. Learn more about the history of AAAS.
The AAAS archives are open to researchers interested in the history of the association and its role in the development of science. The archives hold administrative and program records, as well as records for the journal Science. Browse the AAAS digital archives.
In addition to her research, Daly taught biochemistry courses, advocated for getting Black students enrolled in medical schools and graduate science programs, and started a scholarship for minority students to study science at Queens College in New York.
Washington has been recognized as an expert in atmospheric science, climate research, and the computer modeling of these, receiving multiple presidential appointments to serve on committees, being elected chair of the National Science Board in 2002 and 2004, and receiving numerous awards, including the National Medal of Science in 2009.
Most people outside of the tech sector could not describe the difference between computer engineering vs. computer science. Within tech, computer engineers and computer scientists take on different roles and responsibilities. While computer scientists develop algorithms and design software solutions to problems, computer engineers focus on building hardware and networks to efficiently transmit information.
When it comes to popular majors, computer engineering outranks computer science. Computer engineering, which blends electrical engineering and computer science, prepares graduates for many computer science careers. So what, exactly, is the difference between computer science and computer engineering?
Computer science and computer engineering are not the same. However, the two sectors overlap in core ways. Both fields use computing systems to solve problems. Computer scientists typically focus on the more theoretical side of computing, while computer engineers draw on their engineering backgrounds to solve real-world problems.
Computer engineering focuses on using engineering principles to design and test software, hardware, and networks. Computer engineers study computer science, electrical engineering, and mathematics to create efficient and functional solutions to computing problems.
Computer science considers the theoretical and applied side of computing. Computer scientists study software systems, programming languages, and data analytics to improve the interactions between people and computing systems.
Computer science studies the theory and application of computing technologies. Computer scientists construct new algorithms to analyze big data, design machine learning programs, and work on artificial intelligence projects. They work in computer science careers as software developers, database managers, or network architects.
Bachelor's degrees in computer science and computer science bootcamps prepare graduates for entry-level opportunities as software developers, computer programmers, web developers, and systems analysts. Common computer science courses include computer networking, database administration, information security, and computer engineering. Most computer science programs include experiential learning components like internships, project-based assignments, and labs.
With a master's degree in computer science, professionals can advance into supervisory and research positions as a data scientist, while an individual with a Ph.D. in computer science can pursue employment in research, academic, and leadership roles as a computer science professor or chief technology officer.
Computer engineering overlaps with computer science. Majors in this field learn to design and test computer systems, including networks and hardware devices. For example, they apply electrical engineering training to research or develop processors and circuit boards.
A computer information systems degree trains students in computer science, information technology, and information management. After earning bachelor's degrees in computer information systems, graduates can pursue entry-level roles as information managers, information security analysts, and computer systems analysts.
Computer scientists and computer engineers work in similar fields and receive high earnings. While computer scientists report a slightly higher average salary, the major differences between computer engineering vs. computer science come down to job responsibilities and focus areas.
Computer scientists can pursue careers as software developers, data scientists, systems analysts, and database administrators. In more theoretical roles, they conduct research and develop new computing languages, algorithms, and problem-solving programs. Other computer scientists work in applied computer science to create and test new software programs, including operating systems.